With so many manufacturers and hybrid models now out of warranty, it’s a good thing that we have such detailed repair information available – except that we don’t! There is rarely any detailed description of operating conditions, failure modes, known-good PID values or waveforms. And the newer the vehicle, the less likely you are to find some useful information. In the best cases you have only a symptom or code with a long flow chart. In the worst cases you’re completely on your own to figure out what isn’t right, and you have only your faulty vehicle as a reference. What you need is hybrid training that describes the wide variety of ways manufacturers design their systems, which gives you the ability to choose your own diagnostic path even for hybrids and hybrid-related systems that you’ve never worked on. Read more…